This is a study of the different factors and effects of those factors for making long-range shots in modern combat, more commonly known as sniping.
Range – the horizontal distance between the shooter and target, sets base measurement for other factors
Altitude – the divergence in height from ground between the shooter and the target, cause aim to go up or down
Gravity – pulls bullets down, causes the need to aim up for longer distances
Wind – the speed and direction can push the bullet in several manners, cause the aim to be moved in several directions
Coriolis Effect – the reflection of the bullet by the Earth’s rotation, it’s minor but important at very long ranges
Air Density – slows all bullet momentum by providing resistance, causes aim to go up
The average shooter does not need to concern themselves with so many details, as the average shooter does fire much farther at a target than point blank range, or the range at which aim straight down the sights at the target will nearly always guarantee a hit. These factors come in play as the range increases, due to the fact an error in any one factor can compound over the distance. This is what makes snipers who they are: the ability to determine the factors and correct their aim accordingly to makes shots at target from beyond normal visual range and terrify targets with an unseen attacker.